The World’s Largest Food Crises Are Caused by Just One Thing
War. Violence. Persecution.
No matter what you call it, the result is almost always the same. Conflict – in all of its destructive forms – is the #1 reason millions of people are suffering from hunger. The scale is difficult to comprehend: Of the 821 million hungry people on the planet, 60% of the them live in conflict zones, and the vast majority of that 60% live in just seven countries.
These are the seven hungriest, most conflict-ridden countries on the planet:
Yemen is the world’s biggest, most dire hunger crisis. Over 70% of the population – 20 million people – is teetering on the brink of starvation. Here, we explain why in five simple steps.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
The DRC is the world’s second largest hunger crisis. Decades of civil war have left 13 million people severely food insecure, five million of which are acutely malnourished children.
Record-high levels of hunger across South Sudan are caused by a deadly combination of man-made conflict and erratic weather. More than 7 million people, half the population, are contemplating the f-word.
Eight years of war have pushed 75% of Syrians to extreme levels of poverty and hunger. More than 6.5 million people there are severely food insecure.
Conflict is devastating, but when it’s mixed with poverty and extreme weather, it becomes even harder for people to cope. This is the case in Nigeria, where almost 3 million people are critically hungry.
The Central Sahel – comprised of Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger – faces a deadly combination of conflict and climate change. Today, 2.4 million people don’t know where their next meal will come from.
Bangladesh and Myanmar
Nearly 1 million Rohingya refugees have escaped persecution in Myanmar, settling in camps, makeshift shelters and host communities in neighboring Bangladesh. Kutupalong camp is the largest refugee camp in the world – where 80% percent of the population is entirely dependent on WFP for food.
How did this happen? The answer is deceptively simple.
Once conflict begins, the downward spiral into hunger can be swift and unrelenting. First comes destabilization, then displacement and finally malnutrition.
When violence erupts, it sends shock waves throughout the region’s entire infrastructure. Essential buildings like hospitals, banks and schools are often destroyed. Transportation routes are cut off, making it difficult to travel. Warring parties seize control of public assets, like docks and airports, which can delay or halt imports. This makes basic necessities harder to find, which causes their price to rise and the value of currency to fall. Inflation takes hold, businesses struggle to stay open under the pressure and employers are forced to cut jobs. Parents can no longer afford to send their children to school, so they’re pulled out.
Any one of these factors can put food farther out of reach, but combined, conflict leads to life-threatening levels of hunger.
Sometimes, a region becomes so unstable that families have no choice but to leave. Other times, violence erupts so suddenly that families are forced out in a matter minutes, or they risk dying. In either scenario, they often leave their homes on foot, bringing only what they can carry. These displaced people either become refugees or internally displaced people (IDPs). Refugees are people who have sought safety outside of their home country. IDPs are anyone still living inside their country’s borders.
No matter where they seek safety, refugees and IDPs often find themselves without adequate shelter, health care, electricity, cooking equipment or a way to earn an income. Finding something to eat under these circumstances in foreign places that are already strained becomes nearly impossible without help.
The combination of destabilization and displacement almost inevitably leads to hunger, which, in a dark irony, feeds on itself. Pregnant women who are malnourished are more likely to give birth to underweight babies. New moms who don’t have enough to eat aren’t able to produce breast milk for their infants. And children living in countries ravaged by violence are more than twice as likely to be malnourished. Hungry people are desperate people, and in this way, hunger fuels further conflict. In fact, forty percent of civil wars or internal conflicts in unstable countries are the result of competition for scarce food and resources.
Hunger begets more hunger.
But we can help break the cycle. WFP works day and night in the world’s most dangerous places to distribute food, provide emergency nutrition, deliver school meals and rebuild the infrastructure people need to feed themselves and overcome future upheaval.
Will you join the fight?
Find more facts, stats and stories from the front lines of conflict with videos, a quiz and an interactive infographic on our Conflict and Hunger Hub.