Chad is an arid, low-income and landlocked country, suffering from chronic food insecurity. Conflict in neighboring countries has put additional pressure on already limited resources. Since 2003, Chad has been receiving refugees from neighboring countries, welcoming around 450,000 long-term refugees from Sudan and Central African Republic (C.A.R). Due to limited resources and recurrent climate shocks in the Sahelian belt, the country struggles to tackle malnutrition and precarious health issues. Chad has become more volatile to crisis in neighboring countries, such as Sudan, Libya, C.A.R. and currently Nigeria.
Chad has a population of 11.4 million, predominantly rural. Households are dependent on farming and livestock for their livelihoods. In the last 50 years, since the country’s official independence, high levels of poverty, aggravated by numerous conflicts and ethnic tensions, have had a negative impact on economic development. As a result, 87 percent of the rural population lives below the poverty line and has limited access to basic education. 63 percent of the population is enrolled in school, resulting in an adult literacy rates of 34 percent as of 2011. Chad is ranked 184 out of 187 countries on the 2014 UNDP Human Development Index.
Food insecurity in Chad is primarily caused by a lack of access to food. Despite progress achieved, more than 3 million rural Chadians are in need of humanitarian assistance, while 790,000 people need emergency food assistance.